Tuesday, July 31, 2012

6 caplets, compresses, sprays that relieve sinus pressure

Afrin sinus (Nasal Spray) and Afrin no drip (Pump Mist), manufactured by MSD Consumer Care, Inc., cools the sinuses and relieves sinus pressure.  The no drip ensures that the spray does not drip into your throat and nose. Both the products contain nasal decongestant oxymetazoline hydrochloride. The inactive components include benzyl alcohol, flavor, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, povidone, purified water, and sodium phosphate monobasic.



Benadryl® severe allergy plus sinus headache caplet, sold by McNeil-PPC, Inc., offers relief from various sinus problems, such as sinus headache, sinus pressure and nasal congestion. The drug contains a pain reliever (acetaminophen), nasal decongestant (phenylephrine) and an antihistamine (diphenhydramine).  The inactive ingredients of the drug include candelilla wax, crospovidone, polyethylene glycol, pregelatinized starch and titanium dioxide.
Claritin-D, a product by MSD Consumer Care, Inc., is sold in two formulations: 12-hour and 24-hour. The non-drowsy tablets give you relief from symptoms of allergy, such as sinus pressure and nasal congestion. The principal active ingredients of the drug are pseudoephedrine sulfate and loratadine, an antihistamine.
Sudafed 12-hour pressure + pain from McNeil-PPC, Inc. offers relief from fever, headache, minor body pains and aches, and sinus pressure. The caplets clear sinus and nasal congestion and thereby promote sinus drainage. Sudafed consists of naproxen sodium, which reduces fever and relieves pain, and pseudoephedrine HCI. The inactive ingredients of the caplet are colloidal silicon dioxide, microcrystalline cellulose, polysorbate 80 and titanium dioxide. If you are allergic to aspirin, its naproxen sodium, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), may trigger an allergic reaction.
Sudafed PE® pressure + pain, a non-drowsy formulation by McNeil-PPC, Inc., gives you relief from nasal congestion, sinus congestion and sinus pressure, promoting sinus drainage. The caplet also reduces aches, headaches and pains. The caplets contain acetaminophen, a pain reliever, and phenylephrine, a nasal decongestant. Other components of the drug include cornstarch, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, sodium starch glycolate and titanium dioxide. The medicine is for adults only. Over dosage may damage liver.
Thermalon natural sinus pain relief compress, a product of Bruder Healthcare Company, relives sinus pain and pressure. The compress also helps in treating dental pain, dry eye syndrome, headache, migraine, stress, tension and weariness. The hand washable compress is contoured to fit to the face.
Consult the doctor and follow the directions on label before administering the above caplets.

Monday, July 30, 2012

Symptoms of sinusitis in children

Children have smaller sinus cavities than those in adults. The small sinus cavities are more vulnerable, because the cavities easily and quickly get blocked when the mucous membrane swells due to the infection of an upper respiratory tract (URT). Edema and inflammation of the membrane quickly obstruct the nasopharynx opening. As a result, bacteria grow, multiply and occupy the sinus cavities, causing sinus infection.



And, children who suffered from allergies in the past and have chronic headaches are more prone to sinusitis. The children hypersensitive to inhalant allergens experience inflammation of the mucus membrane and thereby are likely to suffer from bacterial rhinosinusitis. The sinus infection exacerbates asthma in children.   
Since the maxillary sinuses develop first among all four paranasal sinuses and exist at the time of birth, the sinuses are more susceptible to infections. The ethmoid sinuses are also present at birth but the sinuses do not attain the full size until fifteen (15) years of age. The sphenoid sinuses develop by the age of five (5). The frontal sinuses appear between fifth and sixth birthday and fully develop in early twenties.
Pediatric frontal sinusitis is therefore uncommon and the diagnosis is usually delayed and so the treatment. Diagnosing the sinusitis in children is also difficult because of other incomprehensible complaints and lack of disease-specific symptoms. The forehead of adolescents suffering from frontal sinusitis may ache. The pain may be focused behind the eyes.
The sinusitis in children may produce different signs and symptoms. Some of the common symptoms include bronchitis, cough, halitosis, persistent nasal congestion, purulent nasal discharge, otitis media, rhinorrhea and temperature over 101- degree Fahrenheit.
Some symptoms of sinusitis in children are unique, such as low-grade fever or chronic fever. Children may complain about headache everyday in the morning. The intensity of the headaches increases as the day progresses. Children may also have bad breath and tenderness in the sinus region. They may become irritable. Other symptoms include decline in smell sense, pain over sinuses, anorexia and sore throat.
Untreated sinus infections in children may cause complications, such as periorbital subperiosteal abscess, which is generally secondary to the ethmoid sinus disorder. So take care.

Thursday, July 26, 2012

5 tablets for sinus headache relief



For treating sinus headache, a number of drugs are available in the market. Five drugs manufactured by well-known companies are discussed in this article.



ADVIL® cold & sinus caplet, reduces nasal inflammation and associated pain, and clears congestion. Advil also relieves sinus pressure, headache and fever. The caplet, a tablet in capsule shape, contains ibuprofen that reduces fever and relieves pain, and pseudoephedrine, a nasal decongestant. Liqui-Gels, liquid filled capsules, are also available for the medicine. The gels contain solubilized ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine.ALEVE-D sinus & headache, the multi-symptom relief caplet Healthcare LLC, relieves sinus congestion, sinus pressure, headache and nasal congestion. The medicine contains naproxen sodium that reduces fever and relieves pain, and pseudoephedrine. However, naproxen sodium may lead to allergies, particularly in the patients who are already allergic to aspirin.



EXCEDRIN® sinus headache, a non-prescription medicine, relieves nasal and sinus congestion, sinus pressure and headache. The drug consists of phenylephrine hydrochloride (HCl), a nasal decongestant, and acetaminophen, a pain reliever.  You can choose from tablets and caplets. Excedrin®.


McNeil Consumer Healthcare offers MORTIN® sinus headachefor sinus headache relief.  The caplets consist of a nasal decongestant, pain reliever and fever reducer. Mortin also relieves nasal congestion and sinus pressure and pain. The principal active components of the drug include ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine HCI.
TYLENOL® sinus relieves sinus symptoms including sinus headache, sinus congestion, sinus pressure and pain, and runny nose. The company sells two varieties of the drug: nighttime and daytime. Light green tablets (daytime) consists of phenylephrine hydrochloride and acetaminophen. The principal active ingredient of the dark green tablets (nighttime) include acetaminophen, phenylephrine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate, an antihistamine.   The patients, especially those suffering from liver or kidney disorders, high blood pressure or diabetes should consult the physician before taking Tylenol. The sweet-coated eZ tablets of Tylenol are easy to swallow.


All the above medicines are for adults and should not be administered to children.  Read the labels carefully and follow the instructions. Consult the physician, as some of the sinus headache relief medicines may be harmful for the patients who are suffering from other diseases. Pregnant women shall not consume these medicines without consulting a physician.

Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis: causes and cures

Since affordable, accurate diagnostic tests are unavailable, differentiating between sinus infections secondary to the viral infections of upper respiratory tract (URT) and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) is difficult. Therefore, both the diseases share signs and symptoms, such as facial pressure, fever, nasal congestion and rhinorrhea. The rhinorrhea and nasal congestion persists for 1-4 weeks in case of ABRS. The symptoms worsen after five / seven days. Other ABRS symptoms include cough, anosmia / hyposmia, ear pressure / fullness, fatigue, maxillary dental pain and postnasal drip



However, the symptoms may not accurately indicate ABRS because complete and direct physical examination of the paranasal sinuses is not possible due to their inaccessible location within the skull. The ABRS symptoms also overlap with those of the sinus disorders due to non-infectious and non-bacterial factors, including diving, anatomical abnormalities obstructing sinus drainage, foreign bodies, polyps, perennial rhinitis and swimming complications.
The worsening allergic rhinitis or URT infections trigger inflammation of the mucous, causing ABRS. The inflammation and secretion retention further encourage bacterial growth.  The small living things (bacteria) causing ABRS of the ethmoid, frontal and maxillary sinuses include Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumonaie. Anaerobic streptococci, Bacteroides, coliform bacilli, Proteus and other anerobic bacteria are mainly responsible for acute maxillary sinusitis secondary to dental disorders. The maxillary sinus is more prone to ABRS. The principal cause of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis of the sphenoid sinus is Staphylococcus aureus. Anaerobes, Staphylococcus aureus and other varieties of streptococcus may also cause the disease.
To cure ABRS, sinus drainage shall be restored by eradicating nasal congestion and offending bacteria. If ABRS is unilateral, teeth shall be examined for infections. The treatment for ABRS consists of effective measures to relieve symptoms, mucolytic agents, topical corticosteroids, decongestants and antibiotics. The measures to relieve the symptoms include humidification, nasal irrigation and saline nasal sprays that clear the congestion. Mucolytic agents thin the secretions. Topical corticosteroids reduce the inflammation.
Antibiotics are generally administered to the patients whose symptoms are more than a week old. The patients having two or more symptoms are also given antibiotics. For instance, symptoms improve initially and then deteriorate, and tenderness in maxillary sinus region, facial pain and purulent nasal discharge occur simultaneously. Many patients recover with an appropriate dosage of antibiotics.  Standard antibiotics used for the treatment include amoxicillin, azithromycin, doxycycline and trimethoprim. However, consult your physician before starting medication.

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

10 herbs for sinus congestion



There are several herbs for sinus congestion, but this article focuses on ten commonly used herbs.

  1. Bayberry, an astringent, improves circulation. The herb is snuffed as powder or used as an ointment for massaging the sinus.  Bayberry (Myrica cerifera) with yellowish flowers and slim long dark green leaves featuring resin glands relieves nasal congestion and cures nasal polyps. The root bark is used for sinus congestion relief.

  1. Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), belonging to the Poppy family of plants, clears sinus congestion. The North American herb bears delicate yellow-white flowers in spring. The crushed stem produces red color juice.
  2. Elder‘s (Sambucus) yellow flowers relieves the sinus congestion and helps in treating hay fever. The dark blueberries having medicinal properties are also used as food. Elder is found in Africa, Asia, Canada, Europe and the United States.
  3. Eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis), a native to the cold temperate areas in both the hemispheres, is also used for sinus congestion. The medicinal herb blooms into reddish white flowers enhanced with yellow spots and purple streaks.
  4. Ginger (Zingiber officinale), a tropical herb, is easily available in the market. This affordable herb clears sinus congestion. The herb bears green or yellow color flowers. The herb root is used as food and medicine.
  5. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), an effective astringent with cooling effect, relieves sinus congestion. The herb minimizes phlegm. It can be administered as powder and / or tincture. However, pregnant women and the patients suffering from high blood pressure should avoid the herb. The herb has antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties and acts as a decongestant.
  6. Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea), an astringent, reduces phlegm.  The herb dries the mucus within the bronchi and the sinuses. The herb with a unique smell is used as tincture or infusion. The ivy’s blue-purple flowers blossom during May-June.
  7. Mint, one of easily available herbs for sinus congestion, is an anesthetic and analgesic. Warm compresses of the mint heal sinusitis. A mixture of massage oil and mint’s essential oil relieves sinus congestion.
  8. Nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) contains huge amount of chlorophyll. In fact, its chlorophyll content is the highest among all the herbs. The nutrient-rich leaf bears feathery green flowers in July-September.
  9. Thyme and fenugreek tea acts as a decongestant. Although it is a mild form a decongestant, thyme facilitates sinus congestion relief. Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-graceum) bears white flowers and used as medicine and spice.

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

3 poultices for sinus infections


There are several effective traditional and modern sinus infection remedies. For instance, a variety of baths and poultices are used for treating the infection. A poultice is generally a soft thick heated substance spread on a piece of cloth or pressed in two or more layers of the cloth. Herbal or medicated pastes and powders are used for the poultice. The poultice, used for different lesions or sores, acts as an antiseptic, relieves pain, reduces swelling and / or supplies moist warmth.
Several herbs are used in sinus infection remedies. You can use many of these herbs to make a poultice for sinusitis treatment. For instance, you can make a poultice with flaxseed, horseradish or ginger.





Flaxseed poultice
Flaxseeds, known for anti-inflammatory and other medicinal properties, have been used for different treatments since antiquity.  A flaxseed poultice facilitates healing of inflammation of the frontal sinuses and nose. This poultice brings down inflammation of the mucosa, provides relief from the pain and improves drainage of the mucus and pus. 
You will need linen and wool cloths, hot water and whole flaxseeds for the poultice. Apply the hot poultice, but ensure that it is not unbearably hot, to the frontal sinus and nasal regions up to half-an-hour.
Horseradish poulticeHorseradish reduces sinus infections, improves circulation in the facial region and facilitates exist of mucus obstructing the upper respiratory channels. It has antibiotic properties. The horseradish poultice improves the blood flow, softens the mucus and opens the obstructed sinuses, giving you immediate relief.You need roots of horseradish, a washcloth, linen cloth and olive oil for the poultice. Apply the poultice to the neck. The poultice may be applied up to 12 minutes. After poultice application keep your feet warm and do not wash the reddened skin with water. Timing is very important because if it is applied for long, it may burn the skin. Ginger poulticeGinger poultice helps in healing the infection. You need ginger powder, hot water and a handkerchief, paper towel or gauze for the poultice. You may replace hot water with an essential oil of your choice to make the poultice. Apply the poultice to the infected sinus area. Since the poultice uses large amount of ginger, it may irritate the skin. Therefore, adjust the timing or length of the poultice considering your skin’s endurance level. Do not use the poultice in case of hay fever.While using any of the above sinus infection remedies take extra care, as these poultices have some negative effects if used carelessly.

Monday, July 23, 2012

6 sinus diseases requiring surgery


Medication does not heal all symptoms, sinus infections. Some symptoms even require surgery. For instance, surgery and / or medication help in the following sinus diseases: 
Chronic infective rhinosinusitis If patients suffering from chronic infective rhinosinusitis do not respond to medicine, the surgery may benefit them. However, the surgery may not be useful in case the patients are also having ciliary motility disorder or immunodeficiency.




 Aspergillosis
Fungal disease / aspergillosis of sinus requires an appropriate combination of sinus surgery and medication.
Maxillary sinusitis due to dental disorders In case of maxillary sinusitis secondary to dental disorders, if symptoms, sinus infections persist even after apicoectomy treatment or root canal, the sinus surgery is required. However, a need for an endonasal surgical process arises rarely. Antrochoanal and unilateral polyps Antrochoanal polyps start within the maxillary sinus and reach into the nose. Since medication does not treat the polyps, surgery is the only option. Removal of the polyp base present in the maxillary sinus is necessary, otherwise the polyp will reappear. The sinus surgery is also required in case of unilateral nasal polyps secondary to neoplasia (formation of abnormal tissue mass). The purpose of the surgery is removing the polyps and / or biopsy. Sometimes the polyps may appear harmless, but they should be examined thoroughly because an unusual infection or associated tumor may be developing under them. The biopsy will confirm / rule out presence of a tumor or an infection.Paranasal sinus tumors Although several types of tumors are excised during endonasal procedures, removing base of tumor is necessary. The base removal requires surgery. The paranasal sinus tumors are uncommon, but the required surgical procedure is challenging and tough.Inverted papillomaInverted papilloma is a lesion (internal injury) that occurs in the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. The lesion rises from the mucosa membrane lining the sinuses and nose, and grows inward.  Generally, the papilloma develops in the maxillary sinus or rises from the lateral wall of the nose. The lesion obstructs both nose and sinus drainage, and as a result symptoms, sinus infections may develop. The papilloma may also cause headache and epistaxis (nosebleed). If inverted papilloma is atypia (cell abnormality) or malignant, an intensive surgical procedure is required. If it is neither atypia nor malignant, only removal of the infected tissues is advised. However, the lesion may recur after surgery and damage surrounding structures and tissues.

Friday, July 20, 2012

3 techniques used for maxillary sinus drainage


Three surgical techniques are often used for facilitating maxillary sinus drainage: canine puncture, inferior meatal and natural osmium.






 Canine Puncture Technique 
The canine puncture technique has been practiced since mid eighteenth century, when Lamorier invented it. The canine puncture is one of the popular options for the maxillary sinus drainage procedure for various reasons. Bleeding is the least as compared to other two techniques. It requires less time. Syncope (loss of coconsciousness) is rare. Since it is relatively safe, surgeons use only this technique for children. 
The canine fossa is located near the canine tooth root that is palpable. The canine fossa is punctured to access the maxillary sinus and then purulent material is removed from the sinus using a syringe. The sinus and canine fossa are irrigated with warm saline and then patient lean forward, so that the saline escapes the nasal cavity. The aerobic, anaerobic, Gram Stain and fungal culture tests are performed on the purulent material.


Inferior Meatal Technique
In the end of the nineteenth century, Miculicz pioneered the technique, which is still popular. The technique involves puncturing the inferior meatus to enter the maxillary sinus. Mild pressure is applied on the sinus while accessing it. Then, a syringe is used to collect the aspirate from the sinus. The aspirates are used for cultures. The sinus is irrigated with warm saline to finish the procedure. Since the technique targets lower part of the sinus, chances of puncturing the soft tissues are minimum. However, it may be difficult to penetrate the thick bony wall.Natural Ostium 


Technique During the process, the surgeon inserts a cannula with syringe into the middle meatus occupying the posterior infundibulum to access the maxillary sinus’s natural ostium. After collecting cultures, the sinus is washed with warm saline. No bone is penetrated during the procedure, so chances of osteomyelitis are non-existent. However, finding natural ostium is difficult and mechanical trauma due to this procedure may cause stenosis in the natural ostium region. Proximity of the natural ostium access point to the orbit furthers the risk. Chances of bleeding from the vascular and slim nasal mucosa are also high.

Thursday, July 19, 2012

12 vegetables that relieve sinus congestion


Vegetables relieve sinus congestion.
But, which vegetables?
Cruciferous vegetables open up blocked sinuses. You can add these vegetables to soups.
What are cruciferous vegetables?
If you are not familiar with the term, never mind, as you eat these nutrient-rich vegetables regularly.
There are a dozen of cruciferous vegetables, including broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage…
Simple, isn’t?
These are referred to as cruciferous vegetables, as their primary leaves look like a cross. The primary leaves appear immediately after the seeds sprout. The cruciferous also has 4-petal flowers that resemble to a cross. The vegetables belong to Cruciferae family of plants. The vegetables, a rich source of selenium, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, insoluble and soluble fiber, and vitamin C are also called brassicas. Selenium is popular for its anticancer properties.
You can choose the vegetable according to your taste and preference. Here is the complete list of cruciferous vegetables.



  1. Deep blue-green broccoli resembles cauliflower. You can cook broccoli and / or eat the raw vegetable. Tightly closed flowers ensure freshness, whereas open flowers indicate that the vegetable is stale.
  2. Brussels sprouts, resembling cabbage, are known as rose cabbage in German. You can eat raw sprouts or cook them. To enjoy its delicate flavor, buy small size sprouts.
  3. Cauliflower, the aristocrat of the cabbage family, is yellowish and white in color. Mostly the cooked vegetable is preferred. Cauliflower pickles are also common. It is called “vegetable liver” for its high iron content.
  4. Cabbage is cultivated around the world. You can buy Oriental and Western cabbages. Asia produces most of the cabbage.
  5. Collard greens, resembling the flat leaves of cabbage, belongs to the cabbage family. Eat deep green and flabby collard. You can add the greens to soups.
  6. Watercress is a member of the mustard family. The aquatic perennial is cultivated in moist soil along the streams. The pungent leaves are used for soups and salads.
  7. Horseradish is a perennial herb with sharp mustard-like taste. The leaves and roots are used in food.
  8. Mustard greens’ large dark green leaves have sharp mustard flavor. Young leaves can be eaten raw, whereas older leaves are cooked.
  9. Rutabaga, a root vegetable, belongs to the cabbage family. The vegetable sweeter than turnips is the result of crossbreeding of a cabbage and turnip. Rutabaga clears up the sinus congestion and mucus.
  10. Turnips, white and purplish color root vegetable, is used to make curries and / or eaten raw.
  11. Blue-green to green kale leaves resemble and taste like cabbage. The young leaves may be eaten raw, whereas mature leaves are cooked as soup, curry, or stew.
  12. Kohlrabi is also known as turnip cabbage or cabbage turnip. The vegetable can substitute turnips and cabbage in stews and soups. You can also eat raw kohlrabi.

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

Garlic: a prescription for sinus disorders

Both private and public gardens are adorned with a variety of lilies because of the colorful flowers with faint fragrances. For instance, red-orange flowers of Asiatic lily, pure white blooms of spider lily and white and pink buds of milk and wine lily… Some plants of the lily family, such as garlic, also boast medicinal properties. The white or reddish bulblets of garlic bloom into green, white or pink color flowers.
Garlic, an aromatic compound bulb consisting of several separate cloves, is edible. The herb has been used as food and medicine for more than forty centuries. Edward E. Shook, a well-known herb scientist, summed up its properties in one sentence: “This lily is one of nature’s great masterpieces as a safe and certain remedy for many of man’ serious and devastating diseases.”
Botanists refer to the herb as Allium sativum. The herb’s active ingredient, allicin, not only helps in curing sinusitis but also prevents the symptoms. The ingredient offers quick relief from sinus congestion. Scientists have confirmed antibiotic properties of the herb during several studies. There are many ways to use the herb daily to make the most of its therapeutic properties. Such as
  1. If you have no aversion to the pungent taste and smell of garlic, add generous amount of garlic to your food, as the herb is one of the best natural sinus remedies. For instance, add garlic to chicken soup liberally.
  1. Alternately, you can consult your physician for an appropriate dose of Allimax and Allimed, garlic extracts containing allicin. Allimax and Allimed are sold as capsules, liquid and powder. Allimax has antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral properties.
  1. A pouch filled with crushed garlic can be used around the neck of the patient suffering from hay fever to reduce the fever.

  1. In Russia, sunflower oil and garlic mixture is one of the popular natural sinus remedies. The mixture is rubbed on the chest of young patients.
  1. You may use the herb oil as nasal drops. Alternatively, drop the mixture of garlic, water and cider vinegar into the nostrils.

  1. A mixture of garlic juice and honey has analgesic and antibacterial properties. The mixture may help in treating sinusitis.
  1. Make a drink of ginger and garlic. Drink it and inhale steam of the drink to relieve sinus headache. The mixture of garlic and ginger may also thin the sinus mucous.

You may ask your granny for more time-tested natural sinus remedies based on garlic.

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

For natural sinus relief, try apples, berries…

If your sinuses are infected and you hate bitter pills, try apples, berries, mangoes and / or pineapples. These fruits are source of several phyto-nutrients offering natural sinus relief.  Phyto means “plant.” Phyto-nutrients, found in all vegan foods, are substances that are produced during growth of the plant. These substances have several therapeutic properties.


Apple, a temperate fruit, belongs to the rose family. The complete fruit has pleasant fragrance and flavor, beautiful exterior and nutrient-rich interior. All these qualities are appropriately summarized in famous saying “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.” The fruit is a good source of quercetin, a phyto-nutrient used to treat rhinitis and sinusitis.

Berries are smaller than several other commonly eaten fruits, but they are nutrient-dense and have several therapeutic properties. Berries contain xylitol, which is commonly known as birch or wood sugar. Xylitol, a polyol sugar alcohol, is known for antibacterial activity. Xylitol ensures that bacteria do not stick to the mucosal membrane of the nose thereby reduces the number of bacteria in the nasal cavity. Xylitol also prevents colonization of the bacteria.

You can eat blackberries, blueberries, raspberries and strawberries that facilitate healing of the sinus problems. Raspberry helps in decongest the sinuses. Strawberries are a good source of xylitol. Xylitol is also available as nasal spray. Berries also contain quercetin.

Mangoes flood the tropical and subtropical markets during summer and monsoon seasons. This yellow-orange fruit is believed to prevent and treat sinusitis. Since mango promotes epithelium formation and is rich in vitamin A, the fruit prevents sinus and other infections.  Vitamin A not only conditions membranes but also contribute to the development of strong mucous membranes lining the throat and nose. The vitamin also protects against various viral infections.

A large number of varieties of mangoes is available in Asia, where it is known as the King of Fruits. You can savor the chutney, curry, juice, pickle and / or salad of the fruit or just enjoy it raw.
Pineapples are also cultivated in tropics and subtropics. Although its rind is horny, the fresh white to deep yellow fruit with short shelf life is delicious and juicy. A small number of studies has concluded that bromelain enzyme found in pineapples helps in reducing sinus inflammation. Pineapples are also a rich source of vitamin C that protects against infections. You can eat fresh fruit of pineapple, make its salad with papaya, mango, citrus fruit, banana and avocado, and / or add it to cabbage and carrot salads.
Depending on the region where you reside and your taste, pick one of the fruits for natural sinus relief.

Monday, July 16, 2012

ANALGESICS AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORIES

Pharmacological sinusitis treatments

These are indicated in situations with pain and inflammation of the sinusoids. They improve symptoms but not the disease.

How do they work?
Acetyl salicylic acid: it produces analgesia by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins mediated by the inhibition of cyclooxygenase.Paracetamol: It peripherally blocks pain impulses through the reversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase, the enzyme that intervenes in the synthesis of the prostaglandins.Ibuprofen: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) belonging to the group of the arylpropionic acids, which act by preventing the synthesis of prostaglandins.
What should be recommended for their proper use?:
  • Do not treat for more than 10 days.
  • Alcoholic drinks should not be ingested.
  • The recommended therapeutic doses should not be exceeded in any of the three.

 


Paracetamol: in orally disintegrating form, it can be dissolved directly in the mouth or with a little milk or water (not in fruit juice).
Acetylsalicylic acid: the orally disintegrating forms can be dissolved directly in the mouth, it is not necessary to drink liquids. The other forms must be taken with milk, water or fruit juices.Ibuprofen: All the oral forms, even the orally disintegrating ones, must be taken with water, milk or fruit juice.

What situations may give rise to problems related to these medicinal products?
  • The use of aspirin and ibuprofen is contraindicated in patients that have had asthmatic crises.
  • In prolonged aspirin and ibuprofen treatments, the patient should be monitored carefully to detect possible signs and symptoms of ulcers or gastrointestinal haemorrhage.
  • Paracetamol should be monitored due to its possible hepatotoxicity.
  • Adverse effects include nausea, gastric acidity, dyspepsia, urticary and exanthematic reactions.
  • Patients with hypertension should be monitored if treated with acetyl salicylic acid or ibuprofen.

Do these drugs interact with other medicinal products?
Acetyl salicylic acid and ibuprofen:
  • The administration of two or more NSAIDS can increase the risk of peptic ulcer.
  • When administered with oral anticoagulants, they may cause haemorrhages.
  • The simultaneous administration of ibuprofen-aspirin may reduce the antiplatelet properties of aspirin.
  • When administered with certain medicinal products, such as corticosteroids, the risk of gastric haemorrhages is increased.
  • Interactions with antihypertensive drugs.
Paracetamol: As this is metabolised through the liver, it may interact with medicinal products that are metabolised through this same route of elimination.


Friday, July 13, 2012

ORAL ANTIHISTAMINES

Pharmacological sinusitis treatments


These have no clear indication in the treatment of rhinosinusitis except in patients with allergic rhinitis or in those for whom a bacterial aetiology has been ruled out. 
They reduce sneezing frequency and the volume of rhinorrhea, hence they may reduce the risk of the nasopharyngeal microorganisms reaching the inside of the paranasal sinuses.


How do they work?
Histamine is a substance produced in the nasal mucosa following the binding of the allergen to the IgE and is responsible for most of the symptoms (obstruction, sneezing, and secretion). These medicinal products block the effects of the histamine H1 receptors and give rise to vasoconstriction and reduction of vascular permeability, provoking a reduction of flare and edema.





What should be recommended for their proper use?:
  • Do not exceed the recommended daily dose.
  • Interrupt the treatment 24 hours before any surgery.
  • Effect on driving: they may cause sedation, affecting the ability to drive or operate machinery. These are doping agents.
What situations may give rise to problems related to these medicinal products?
  • Their adrenergic stimulation may cause side effects due to t such as nervousness, insomnia, tachycardia, high blood pressure, nausea, vomiting, dryness of mouth, dyspnoea, urticary and exanthematic reactions.
  • Patients who may suffer a worsening in their pathologies: diabetes, HBP, glaucoma, heart disease, hyperthyroidism, etc. Use with caution in the elderly!
Do these drugs interact with other medicinal products?
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Anaesthetics by inhalation
  • Antihypertensives
  • Digoxin
  • Nervous stimulants
  • Thyroid hormones
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI)
  • Levodopa
  • Nitrates

Thursday, July 12, 2012

TOPICAL NASAL CORTICOSTEROIDS

Pharmacological sinusitis treatments

In patients with acute sinusitis, topical corticosteroids have proved to be relatively ineffective, partly due to their inability to reach the mucosa. Nevertheless, in cases of recurring or chronic sinusitis, the addition of topical corticosteroids (fluticasone) to a regimen of decongestants and antibiotics may accelerate the resolution of symptoms. A Cochrane review of topical intranasal steroid studies showed an improvement in children and adult patients as opposed to those that did not use it. However, there is not sufficient scientific evidence to recommend them.
To obtain the maximum benefit from the topical application of corticosteroids, it is essential that they reach the mucosa, hence any obstacle in the course thereof (hypertrophy of the turbinates, serious septal deviation or large polyps) is likely to reduce their effectiveness.





How do they work?
Glucocorticoids act by reducing the synthesis and release of inflammation and allergy mediators such as histamine, prostaglandins and leukotrienes.

  • Beclomethasone.
  • Budesonide.
  • Fluticasone propionate.
  • Mometasone.
  • Triamcinolone.
What should be recommended for their proper use?:
  • Apply preferably in the morning.
  • Clean the nose before administration, shake the container, apply in an upright position and clean the nasal applicator.
  • The therapeutic effect is achieved after a few days of uninterrupted treatment.
What situations may give rise to problems related to these medicinal products?
  • Irritation of the nasal mucosa, sneezing, nasal congestion, nose bleeds, rhinorrhea (<3%), irritation of the pharynx and dryness of the nose. Caution should be used in patients with frequent nose bleeds.
  • Bewilderment and headache (<5%).
  • Tearing (<5%).
  • Pharyngitis, cough (3-9%), dyspnoea and hoarseness (<1%).
  • Myalgia and osteomuscular pain (<1%).
  • Dyspepsia, dryness of mouth and nausea.
  • If sufficient systemic absorption occurs, it may give rise to a hypertensive crisis.


Do these drugs interact with other medicinal products?
No interactions have been reported.

Wednesday, July 11, 2012

ANTIBIOTICS

Pharmacological sinusitis treatments

Antibiotics have little effect in the treatment of patients with acute rhinosinusitis and are often used unnecessarily. In the case of purulent infections, the duration of the treatment is 10 to 14 days depending on the symptoms. The antimicrobial of choice is amoxicillin at high doses. The second line antimicrobial is amoxicillin + clavulanic acid or cefuroxime. In the case of penicillin allergies, quinolones may be used. In general, the macrolides do not have good results with this pathology.
How do they work?

Amoxicillin is a broad-spectrum penicillin, effective against gram+ and gram-, with better pharmacokinetic characteristics than other penicillins. When combined with clavulanic acid, a penicillin inhibitor, the spectrum of action increases considerably. 
The macrolides act by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial proteins by binding the 50S subunit of the ribosome and by inhibiting the translocation of the peptides. It is active against gram+ and gram-.





What should be recommended for their proper use?:
In the case of a suspension, turn the bottle upside down to release the powder. Read the reconstitution instructions carefully and add the necessary water. Shake before using. Once the suspension has been reconstituted, store in the refrigerator for up to 14 days if it is amoxicillin, 7 if it is amoxicillin-clavulanic, 3-5 if it is azythromycin and 15 at room temperature if it is clarithromycin. Be certain the reconstitution is correct and occurs once!
Do not withdraw the treatment before 7 days even if there is improvement and take at regular intervals.
Gastrointestinal absorption and tolerance are promoted when amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is given just before meals since it provokes nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea in 1-10% of the population. Cefuroxime should be taken with food. Azythromycin interacts with food and it must be taken half an hour before or 2 hours after meals. Clarithromycin may be taken with or without food, although better with food. In general, probiotics are recommended to avoid undesirable intestinal effects.
The use of antibiotics may give rise to stomatitis, candidiasis and cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions.
Do these drugs interact with other medicinal products?
  • Amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic may interact with allopurinol, oral anticoagulants, oral contraceptives, naproxen, nifedipine, antacids and digoxin.
  • Macrolides may interact with statins.
  • Azithromycin may interact with ergotamines.
  • Clarithromycin may interact with fluoxetine.

Friday, July 6, 2012

MUCOLYTICS

Pharmacological sinusitis treatments

How do they work?

These are substances that destroy the different physicochemical structures for abnormal bronchial secretion, thus achieving easy elimination. Drugs that reduce the viscosity of the bronchial secretion when it is abnormally high are known as mucolytics.

What situations may give rise to problems related to these medicinal products?
  • In asthmatic patients with serious respiratory failure or in those with diseases that occur with bronchial spasms, a flow in secretions may cause the obstruction of the airways if expectoration is not adequate.
  • Patients with peptic ulcers may have nausea and vomiting and risk of gastric haemorrhages.
  • Adverse effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and gastric hyperacidity.
Do these drugs interact with other medicinal products?


Antibiotics: with cephalosporins and erythromycin lactobionate, the administration should be spaced out to intervals of at least two hours. Cough suppressants: may inhibit the cough reflex and cause pulmonary obstruction.

What should be recommended for their proper use?
 Drink a lot of water during treatment.



Thursday, July 5, 2012

ORAL DECONGESTANTS

Pharmacological sinsuitis treatment


How do they work?

While their vasoconstriction effect is less than those of topical use, they act on both the nasal mucosa and the paranasal sinuses and do not produce any rebound effect. They are indicated when decongestants are needed for periods of more than one week, but their adverse effects must be taken into account.

  • Phenylephrine: α1 adrenergic agonist found in many medicinal products that are recommended for colds.
  • Pseudoephedrine: α1 adrenergic agonist and to a lesser extent β-receptor agonist.
It can be found in medicinal products as a single active substance or mixed with other substances indicated for colds.
  • Phenylpropanolamine: Seldom used.

    What should be recommended for their proper use?:
    Medicinal products that include acetyl salicylic acid should be taken after meals with a sufficient amount of water.

    What situations may give rise to problems related to these medicinal products?
    • There may be a worsening in the conditions of diabetic and hypertensive patients with glaucoma, heart diseases and hyperthyroidism.
    • Warn the patient about driving and the use of machinery since these drugs may cause drowsiness
    • Special vigilance should be employed with the elderly.
    • Adverse effects include nausea, vomiting, dryness of mouth, nervousness, insomnia, tachycardia, high blood pressure, dyspnoea and urticary and exanthematic reactions.

    Do these drugs interact with other medicinal products?
    Avoid the consumption of alcohol during treatment, as it boosts the sedative effect.

Wednesday, July 4, 2012

TOPICAL DECONGESTANTS

Pharmacological treatments


How do they work?


By producing vasoconstriction in the nasal sinusoids, which are regulated by adrenergic-type mechanisms, specifically by α-receptors. Three (3) types may be identified:

  • α1 (post-synaptics): particularly sensitive to the release of noradrenalin by the sympathetic nerve fibres. Phenylephrine and Methoxamine are α1-adrenergic receptor agonists. Phenylephrine is very seldom used because it may cause hypertension and reflex bradycardia.
  • α2 (pre-synaptics): responsible for inhibitory retrocontrol of noradrenalin release. α2-adrenergic receptor agonists like methoxamine have a more powerful, longer lasting and selective effect.
  • α2 (post-synaptics): sensitive to the adrenaline produced by the adrenal medulla of the suprarenal capsules. The agonists of these receptors are derived from clonidine, such as Oxymetazoline, Xylometazoline, and Naphazoline, have a slow but prolonged onset of action and are the most frequently used.

  • What should be recommended for their proper use?
    • Clean the nose before every application.
    • Administer with the head upright, breathing in deeply.
    • Do not use for more than 3-5 days to avoid the rebound effect.
    What situations may give rise to problems related to these medicinal products?
    • There may be a worsening in the conditions of diabetic and hypertensive patients with glaucoma, heart diseases and hyperthyroidism.
    • Warn the patient about driving and the use of machinery since these drugs may cause drowsiness.
    Do these drugs interact with other medicinal products?
    • No interactions have been described for Naphazoline, Oxymetazoline, Xylometazoline or Tramazoline.

Tuesday, July 3, 2012

HYPERTONIC SALINE SOLUTIONS

Non-pharmacological treatments


These are solutions used for washing the nose and for decongestion and any dryness. There are signs that they do complement treatment, alleviating symptoms and being well tolerated by most patients. Although there is no proof that saline solution is a substitute for standard treatments, the inclusion of the use of a topical nasal saline solution probably improves symptom control in patients with chronic sinusal diseases. Recommendations cannot be made on any specific solutions, the dosage or the means of administration. No significant side effects have been reported.



  • Sterile physiological serum: Water + sodium chloride at 9%.
  • Isotonic and sterile seawater: Water + Sodium chloride + minerals.
  • Thermal water rich in sulphur.
They are used for instillations and nose washes 3 to 6 times a day and are recommended for the entire population:
  • Sprays:
    • Nasal spray: To wet the mucosa, insert the nozzle upright in the nostril and press the valve.
    • Washes: With the head tilted to one side, insert the applicator into the opposite nostril. The applicator should be cleaned after every use.
  • Single dose: In children, once the vial has been opened, carefully insert the container into one of the nostrils and press slightly on the vial to avoid the risk of contamination of the middle ear. Repeat in the other nostril. Dry any surplus liquid with a wipe, then blow the child’s  nose or use a nasal aspirator. Do not blow the nose violently in the 10 minutes following administration.


Monday, July 2, 2012

HOMEOPATHY

Non-pharmacological treatments

Homeopathy is a therapeutic method which clinically applies the Law of Similarity and uses medicinal substances in low or minute doses to activate our body's defences to improve or cure the disease.

To establish a diagnosis and treat the disease, homeopathy not only takes into account any symptoms, physical examinations or other complementary tests, but adds a broader semiology that considers how the person perceives their problems while taking into account the individual as a whole.

How does it work?
The theory of homeopathy holds that the same symptoms that a toxic substance provokes in a healthy person may be cured by a remedy prepared with the same toxic substance, but in highly diluted form. The dilution factors may include:

  • 1:10 D or X Potency
  • 1:100 C Potency
  • 1: 50,000 DM Potency

The mechanism of action is controversial, as it is unknown. Detractors of the treatment do not understand how homeopathy can be effective if there are no molecules of active substance. On the other hand, those in favour believe that it is an experimental science that does indeed work. Clinical trials are not conclusive either in favour or against.

 

How and when should it be used?
The greater the dilution, the greater the therapeutic potency. 5, 7 and 9 CH are used for acute conditions. Higher dilutions such as 30 CH are used in chronic conditions and for greater effect in the patient’s mental or emotional state.

Each product may be taken one or more times a day depending on the condition. It should be taken:

  • separately from meals;
  • without mixing it with aromatic substances that might interfere with absorption, such as tea, coffee, tobacco or mint.

What is recommended for its proper use?

  • In the case of granules and globules, remove them from the container with the help of the stopper and put them in your mouth. Do not touch the product with your hands!
  • Allow them to dissolve under your tongue.

What situations may give rise to problems related to these medicinal products?
None are known, which is why they are recommended for the elderly, children and pregnant or breast-feeding women.

Do these drugs interact with other medicinal products?
They do not interact with any drug, but the effectiveness of homeopathy is reduced by antihistamines and corticosteroids.

Rhinosinusitis responds well to homeopathy, especially acute cases which are mostly complications of acute rhinitis. The patient presents a nasal obstruction that yields a clear serous production that is transformed into increasingly denser mucopurulent rhinorrhea that may result in sinusitis.

The following are some of the most commonly used treatments:

Remedies for acute cases are symptomatic and are used for rhinitis and sinusitis as decongestives and mucolytics.

  • Kalium bichromicum
  • Kalium iodatum
  • Hydrastis canadensis
  • Sticta pulmonaria

Remedies that treat the underlying cause depend on the individual as a whole. The variation in emotional sensitivity is assessed, as are any mental symptoms, general subjective and objective symptoms and the modalities of rhythm, environment, position, etc. The treatment is thus personalised, and every patient must be studied.

  • Pulsatilla
  • Natrum muriaticum
  • Thuya
  • Hepar sulfur
  • Silicea

Biotherapeutics are secretions or excretions (whether pathological or not), tissues or pathogenic organs on the basis of which the homeopathic medicinal product is prepared to heal the disease they provoke. They are used in chronic or recurring diseases

  • Psorinum
  • Tuberculinum
  • Tuberculinum Aviaire
  • Medorrhinum
  • Pyrogenium

 

Symptomatic remedies:

Kalium bichromicum: For thick, viscous, yellow, yellow-greenish or bloody mucus that may form scabs that stick to the nasal fossae.
In acute sinusitis, 5 CH, 5 granules every 2 hours, favours rhinorrhea. Space out according to improvement.
In chronic sinusitis, 7 or 9 CH, 5 granules 2 times/day help to dry nasal production.

Kalium iodatum: For pain in the frontal sinuses. The rhinorrhea may be more or less abundant, but it is always burning.
5 CH, 5 granules every 2 hours. Space out according to improvement.

Hydrastis: For thick, rebellious, yellowish, viscose secretions, accompanied by fatigue and sometimes weight loss.
6X, 20 drops before lunch and dinner.

Sticta pulmonaria: For dry coryza, with pain at the base of the nose, which seems to be obstructed as there is no result when the nose is blown. Frontal headache.
5 CH, 5 granules every 2 hours. Space according to improvement.

Oscillococcinum: For prevention and for treatment of any flu or cold.
Treatment: Add one daily dose to the selected treatment.
Prevention: Take one dose weekly during the highest risk season.